alternate text alternate text alternate text alternate text


People -- Process -- Business -- Technology
IFEAD is an independent research and information exchange organization working on the future state of Enterprise Architecture.

Enterprise Architecture in the Defense World

US - Government IT Calender 2007


DoD Logo
JTA Logo

DoD IT Standards Registry (DISR) Documents & Archives


Promulgation Memos

Memo: DISR Baseline Release 04-2.0, 2004-12-22
Memo: DISR Baseline Release 04-1.0, 2004-07-15
Memo: JTA v6.0, 2003-11-24
Memo: JTA v5.0, 2003-08-19
Memo: JTA v4.0, 2002-08-12
Memo: JTA v3.0, 1999-11-29
Memo: JTA v2.0, 1998-11-30
Memo: JTA v1.0, 1996-08-22


Training: DISRonline Search & Profiling, 2004-09-28
Training: DISRonline Change Request Tool, 2004-09-28

Standards Reports - (05-1.0)

Stds Assigned for Periodic Review (for 05-2.0)
Stds Returned to TWG for Action (from 05-1.0)

Standards Reports - Current Registry (04-2.0)

DISR Baseline 04-2.0 Summary
Stds by NCES Category, 04-2.0
Stds by Service Area, 04-2.0
Stds by Primary Owner/Secondary Interest, 04-2.0
Stds Assigned for Annual Review (Cycle 3), 04-2.0

New Emerging Stds for Baseline Release 04-2.0
New Mandated Stds for Baseline Release 04-2.0
Stds Updated from Emerging to Mandated, 04-2.0
Stds moved to Inactive/Retired, 04-2.0
Stds Updated to Newer Version, 04-2.0
Stds Returned to TWG for Action, 04-2.0


USA Defense follows the EA leader

For once, the USA Defense Department has been playing catch-up with the rest of government.

Over the past year, USA Defense created a new IT architecture that mirrors the USA Federal Enterprise Architecture, said Roy Mabry, a senior architect in the department’s CIO office.

“Our reference models are not radically different from the Office of Management and Budget’s reference models,” Mabry said at a recent conference on enterprise architecture in Washington sponsored by the Digital Government Institute of Bethesda, Md. “We mapped our mission areas to OMB’s taxonomy.”

DOD previously had gone its own way on EA, with its Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Core Architecture. But DOD dumped that data model last year and developed one that aligns with the rest of the government.

“To have true information sharing and security, we have to be planning across all of government, which means normalizing justifications across civilian, Defense and intelligence,” said Norman Lorentz, former OMB chief technology officer, who helped DOD begin its shift to a more common model. “By using the FEA methodology, other agencies in theory could use DOD’s work. All the components should be plug-and-play.”

Lorentz, now managing director for Federal Solutions Group of Vienna, Va., added that DOD decided to mesh its EA with the federal model because OMB was making funding decisions based on how well agencies’ systems matched up against the FEA.

Mabry said DOD developed four major mission areas: business, warfighter, intelligence and enterprise information. The department’s Global Information Grid Architecture encompasses all the mission areas and the Technical, Service Component, Business, Data and Performance reference models break down the mission areas into functions and subfunctions.

Mabry said Defense will finish the second versions of the reference models this spring.

“The reference models can help transform DOD because each simplifies the complexities of our missions,” he said. “We took the FEA methodology as a high-level taxonomy and its definitions to organize the DOD mission areas.”

Mabry added that when his team was developing each reference model, architects found the reference models needed to be extended because they did not offer specific enough information about some of DOD’s mission areas.

Now that Version 1.0 of the architecture is in place, Mabry said the CIO’s office must make the case to program chiefs that they should be more involved in planning and deploying systems.


November 2004, USA Fed up with the lack of progress USA Defense has made on modernizing its business systems, US-Congress is threatening fines of $5,000 and jail time for the department’s comptroller if systems do not comply with the EA

Congress is enforcing its mandate that the US Defense Department develop systems compatible with the DOD Business Enterprise Architecture—with the threat of jail time and hefty fines for the department’s comptroller.

The language is tied to Title 31 of the Antideficiency Act, which makes it illegal for government agencies to use funds for projects outside authorized purposes.

“I think the legislation is a step in the right direction in terms of governance, accountability and helping to bring together the integration of thousands of business systems in the department,” said Gregory Kutz, director of financial management and assurance for the Government Accountability Office.

Kutz said when he did his review of the department’s Business Management Modernization Program in the summer, he found dozens of systems across the Army, Air Force and Navy—totaling $863 million in obligations—that were in clear violation of the act.

Marilyn Fleming, chief architect for Defense’s Business Management Modernization Program, said DOD is listening.

Read More About This Story


Joint Warfare requires more Collaboration

The USA Joint Forces Command has built a new command and control facility for civilian and military agencies and NATO countries that its chief promises will be “a vibrant intellectual engine.”

The new Joint Systems Integration Command in Suffolk, Va. USA, will incorporate a Joint National Training Capability and begin initial operations this month, said Adm. Edmund P. Giambastiani Jr., head of the USA Joint Forces Command. He spoke in late September at the Commonwealth of Virginia IT Symposium in Norfolk.

Construction began on the 86,000-square-foot facility in March. Its mission is rapid insertion of new joint technologies for command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance.

“We’re going to demonstrate next-generation, multiagency and multinational collaboration and interoperable command and control across the full spectrum,” Giambastiani said. “We don’t care where the innovation comes from. There is great value in having a wide net of partners.”

The end result, he said, will be to “mass the [military] effects when and where we choose, not just to mass the equipment and forces.”

The joint training program held trials three times this year on the same training range, he said. It will eventually replace separate training exercises held by the Navy’s Top Gun pilot school, the Air Force’s Air Warrior program and the Army’s National Training Center.

Joint military teams of the future will be trained to use the same terminals, or “kill boxes,” Giambastiani said.

US-Intel community looks to Enterprise Architecture to build up information sharing

The USA intelligence community—the collection of federal agencies that gather, analyze and disseminate intelligence—needs to adopt an enterprise architecture to break down the barriers that have long prevented its members from sharing information.

The community comprises three distinct elements: agencies within the Defense Department, such as the Defense Intelligence Agency; those that are part of larger departments, such as State and Energy; and one standalone agency, the CIA.

“You have to start with almost a federal view of this, and even that’s not quite big enough,” Wade said in an interview, because even organizations outside the community, such as the Homeland Security Department and state and local law enforcement agencies, rely on the intelligence.

The intelligence community is still developing the architecture. The blueprint will be used to define and support all the purposes and missions for which the community needs to share information, including military intelligence. The Defense Department is working on its own plan, know as the ISR integration roadmap

Business Enterprise Architecture

The Department of Defense's (DoD) Business Enterprise Architecture is a high-level blueprint to guide the DoD's transformation. The Business Enterprise Architecture describes the structural composition of DoD business operations in ways that transcend organizational boundaries - it demonstrates and facilitates the derivative nature of the design and development of business capabilities by linking business needs to business capabilities and by tracing business strategies to systems solutions.

Architecture Overview

We are pleased to announce the delivery of the DoD-wide Business Enterprise Architecture (BEA) version 2.2.1, which is pending government approval. The Standard Financial Information Structure (SFIS) is introduced in version 2.2.1. This builds upon version 2.2, which is highlighted by the Enterprise Business Process Model (EBPM).

Enterprise Architecture Reference Models:
A Shared Vision for Service-Oriented Architectures

By Tim Bass, Silk Road; and Roy Mabry, DoD OCIO ASD/NII;

The business- and mission-driven objectives of service-oriented architectures depend on the dynamic interaction of collaborative integrated operations in a federated operational environment. The theme of this paper is that integrated operations can and should be considered service-oriented nodes in a dynamic information environment. In the Department of Defense, this dynamic information environment has often been referred to as “the global information grid” or simply “the grid.” We describe enterprise architecture reference models as a dynamic abstract reference environment for net-centric collaboration between the service-oriented “nodes on the grid.” The complex, dynamic interaction of service-oriented nodes in the net-centric environment creates an opportunity to view enterprise architecture as a taxonomy of well-defined systems architectures governed by a set of enterprise architecture reference models.

Download this paper here (PDF 553 Kb)

US-DOD to test Business Modernization Architecture

The Defense Department later this month will release two requests for proposals for pilot programs using its Business Management Modernization Program architecture.

DOD will award contracts for a new accounting system based on the requirements identified last April by Defense employees and contractor IBM Corp. U.S. Transportation Command, Air Force Mobility will conduct one test and the Army Installation Management Agency will run the other one during fiscal 2005, said JoAnn Boutelle, DOD’s deputy chief finance officer.

“All the services are cooperating to work on the implementation of these new processes so we will end up with a common set of processes,” Boutelle said at the annual conference sponsored by the Joint Financial Management Improvement Program in Washington. “All the bases will eventually run the same system with some tweaking needed.”

USA - Defense to certify EA software vendors

The USA Defense Department will start certifying enterprise architecture software that is compatible with the agency’s own architecture terminology.

Each of the vendors’ products can be used with the Department of Defense Architecture Repository System, which the military services can use for sharing and integrating their architectures.

By serving as a central repository, DARS was created to counter the growing interoperability of enterprise architecture development software, even though most products use the open Extensible Markup Language, Parmele said.

Compliant with the Defense Architecture Framework, DARS uses Version 2.0 of DOD’s Core Architecture Data Model terminology for defining organizational components.

The certification will ensure that the company’s software can read CADM-based XML files and that it can convert and export user-generated files into the CADM terminology.

“The overall objective is for the people to interchange data without problems,” said Bill Wright, chief executive officer for Computas Inc., of Sammamish, Wash. “If someone in the Navy needs to exchange data with the Air Force or Army, they can access the data and pull it right into the software they are using without writing a code or doing a lot of analysis of how that data maps.”

To generate vendor interest, the office undertook a proof of concept last fall with four companies to demonstrate that CADM-based data could be moved among different software programs.

The second phase of this work, now underway, involves vendors writing their own DARS-compatible plug-ins. The teams currently working through the second phase of a prototype of DARS include Computas, IBM Corp., IDS Scheer AG of Germany, Popkin Software and Systems Inc. of New York, Proforma Corp., of Southfield, Mich., and Schafer Corp. of Arlington, Va.

Companies that build compatible products will be certified after the prototype is finished in June.

DoD Interoperability

The need for better interoperability and information flow across DoD in support of the joint Warfighter has been widely recognized. Joint Vision 2010 provided the baseline for this vision, anticipating future warfighting that embodied the improved intelligence and command and control available in the information age. It stressed technological innovation as the means to enable DoD systems to interact with each other, exchanging vital information across platforms and across systems within a platform during joint operations. Joint Vision 2020 goes beyond technological innovation, and points toward innovation in all aspects of force, and it addresses the need for interoperability in joint, multinational, and interagency operations.

USD (AT&L) memo, subject: NATO Standards for Use in the Acquisition of Munitions, provides direction in the use of selected NATO Standardization Agreements (STANAGs) and Allied Ordnance Publications (AOPs) in furthering the DoD goal of interoperability with our NATO allies.

At left is a discussion paper on interoperability as supported by the Defense Standardization Program (also available as a PowerPoint briefing, with notes.

A number of joint initiatives are underway within DoD that attempt to address these concerns. Some of the the decisions reached by these joint bodies, as described in different documents, have a definite impact on Defense standardization. Several of the key efforts are outlined below

US-DoD Final Draft Architecture Framework 1.0


US DOD has released the final draft of its Architecture Framework 1.0.

The framework, which replaces the Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Core Architecture Data Model, comes with a so-called deskbook of supplementary guidance.

The framework has a new emphasis on capability-based analysis. In other words, DOD officials will define the tasks they want to achieve and then look for the systems that will support those goals, instead of the other way around.

Download DoD AF Version 1 Volume 1 (Zip 1.646 Kb)

Download DoD AF Version 1 Volume 2 (Zip 3.643 Kb)

Download DoD AF Version 1 Volume 3 Deskbook (Zip 9.334 Kb)

The USA Defence, C4ISR Architecture Framework, Overview

The acronym C4ISR stands for Command, Control, Computers, Communications (C4), Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR). The C4ISR Architecture Framework Version 2.0 is a framework giving comprehensive architectural guidance for all of these related Defense and DoD domains, in order to ensure interoperable and cost effective military systems.

The Framework is under revision to generalize it to apply to all functional areas of the Department of Defense. It is already being used in government areas beyond the Defense sector.

The impetus for the Framework was the realization within the US Department of Defense that DoD organizations across the world were developing architectures representing specific contributions and relationships with respect to overall DoD operations, but that significant differences in content and formats were inhibiting the ability to rationalize or compare different architecture descriptions. In turn, disparate and unrelatable architecture products were leading to non-integrated, non-interoperable, and non-cost effective capabilities in the field.

The C4ISR Architecture Framework is intended to ensure that the architecture descriptions developed by the various Commands, Services, and Agencies within DoD are interrelatable between and among each organizationís operational, systems, and technical architecture views, and are comparable and integratable across Joint and multi-national organizational boundaries.

In particular, the Framework:

  • Assures that architectures are integratable across the Defense community
  • Establishes linkages or threads that tie together the operational, systems, and technical views of an architecture
  • Provides the basis for an audit trail that relates current and postulated systems to measures of effectiveness for mission operations

Download C4ISR Version 2 Architecture Framework (3459Kb)

Other NATO countries developed simular C3I or C4ISR frameworks for their Enterprise Architecture activities.

Enterprise Architecture Tools for Delivering Combat and Business Capabilities

C4ISR Architecture Framework, Methods & Tools Comparison

The C4ISR AF Products are robust in terms of capturing the architecture, but are problematic when they need to be rigorously modeled on the path to producing a system that is compliant with that architecture.

The recommended documentation of the artifacts from this architecture is not consistent across all the products from a system or software "methodology representation" standpoint.

Download C4ISR Tools & Methods Comparison Presentation (682Kb)

C4ISR Architectures Working Group-Digital Library

In order to achieve the dominant battlespace awareness called for in Joint Vision 2010, today’s fragmented Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) development processes must become more focused, efficient, and effective. The objective must be a joint C4ISR capability that is integrated, interoperable, efficient, and meets today’s demanding mission needs.

US-Army WIN-T program enters Phase 2


The US Army has begun the development and demonstration phase of its Warfighter Information Network-Tactical project.

Michael Wynne, acting undersecretary of Defense for acquisition, technology and logistics, has given the Army approval to proceed beyond the concept phase of WIN-T.

The US Army recently awarded $68 million to General Dynamics Corp. and $63 million to Lockheed Martin Corp. for Phase 2 work.

Wynne also gave the program the Defense Departmentís top acquisition designation, which means that because the programís total procurement is more than $10 billion, DOD ďwill maintain a higher level of visibility into WIN-T, which is an essential element of the departmentís transformation strategy,Ē Wynne said.

The decision came the day after the Defense Acquisition Board met to review the project, said Donald L. Keller, WIN-T project director. The Army Communications-Electronics Command in Fort Monmouth, N.J., oversees the project.

Through the WIN-T program, the Army plans to build a high-speed, high-capacity network for wired and wireless voice, data, video and imagery communications for soldiers on the battlefield.

ďThe Army had to demonstrate that the requirements are sound, that a system and operational architecture have been developed and that the program is affordable,Ē Keller said. Thatís what consumed much of the first phase, he saidódeveloping the system architecture, performing technology assessments and running cost estimates.

In this second phase, the service will spend 27 months working with Lockheed Martinís mission systems group and General Dynamicsí command, control, computers and communications systems division.

The contractors will work with the Army to design the system, run models and simulations of the communications network, and build equipment prototypes, Keller said.

Selection by 2006

By 2006, the Army will pick one of the two vendors to begin rolling out an operational version of WIN-T.

The network will replace the Tri-service Tactical Communications system, which is based on military technology from the 1970s. Signal battalions are required to use the system for most communications functions.

The new system will use commercial products and standards so that new technology can be incorporated as soon as it becomes available. The network will be part of the userís platform and not dependent on the Signal Corps to provide the communications link.

WIN-T will require interfaces with other Defense combat systems as well as the Armyís Future Combat Systems, Joint Tactical Radio System and ultimately the equipment for the Objective Force Warrior, the Armyís high-tech vision for 21st-century combat forces.

US-Defense Inspector General criticizes Business Enterprise Architecture


The US Defense Department Inspector Generalís office last week issued a report criticizing DODís Business Enterprise Architecture and calling for the department to address the issues quickly.

DOD has spent $100 million with lead contractor IBM Corp. to develop the business enterprise architecture, but it has not defined what a business management IT system is or established a systems inventory that is synchronized with the modernization effort, a deputy assistant IG found in the July 10 report.

Furthermore, DOD has not established procedures for enterprise architecture workers to develop and maintain a complete list of business systems, according to David K. Steensma, deputy IG for auditing.

DOD has broken its financial framework into seven business areas: logistics, acquisition, accounting and financial management, program and budget, personnel and readiness, technology infrastructure and real property, and environmental liabilities. DOD has appointed financial managers to oversee each of the business areas.

But, ďDOD does not have a single-source repository to collect its business information, reduce the burden of multiple and costly data calls, and inform its transforming initiatives,Ē according to the report.

Download this report 'Systems Inventory to Support the Business Enterprise Architecture (D-2003-117) (333Kb PDF)

Australia's Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO)

Australian's DSTO's role is to ensure the expert, impartial and innovative application of science and technology to the defence of Australia and its national interests.

US-Department of Defense, Business Enterprise Architecture

05/2003, The Defense Departmentís Financial Management Modernization Program office, became the Business Management Modernization Program office. And DODís financial management architecture is now the business enterprise architecture.

Last month, DOD unveiled a plan to whittle its more than 2,200 financial systems for an enterprise architecture being developed by IBM Corp. The architecture identifies the business rules as well as the technology needed for a departmentwide financial infrastructure.

Financial Management Enterprise Architecture


The Department of Defense will be managed in an efficient, business-like manner, in which accurate, reliable, and timely financial information, affirmed by clean audit opinions, is available on a routine basis to support informed decision-making at all levels throughout the Department.

In July 2001, Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld established the Financial Management Modernization Program (FMMP), the most comprehensive and ambitious DoD-wide reform initiative of its kind. Just as the Department is transforming our nation's military forces, so is it also modernizing the business and financial processes and systems to deliver reliable and accurate information for timely decision-making. In this way, the Department will not only benefit from greater efficiency, but also apply the resources saved directly to our war fighting capability.

The scope of FMMP is broad and deep, encompassing the Department's business activities and infrastructure. The Departmentís business activities include financial and non-financial operations and systems. Non-financial business operations and systems include those that support the acquisition, medical, transportation, property, inventory, supply, and personnel communities, as well as other communities. The first step is to design a Financial Management Enterprise Architecture (FMEA) that will modernize and integrate both processes and systems, which are now isolated from one another. The FMEA will be the blueprint to transform the Department's business operations and will leverage systems and technologies to enable this comprehensive change.

Such fundamental and sweeping change is never easy, yet reform is essential to ensure Defense operations well into the 21st Century.
A successful FMMP will mean responsible and effective stewardship of the resources entrusted to usóresources essential for protecting American freedom. A comprehensive approach, senior management commitment, and inter-Departmental cooperation will help guarantee that momentum for this reform initiative is sustained over the long term.


US-DoD Financial Management Enterprise Architecture


View FMEA's Vision, Scope and Approach

Download Defense Wide Enterprise Architecture Presentation (99Kb Pdf)

Downlaod Presentation E-Government & Enterprise Architecture (807KB zip)

IFIP-IFAC Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration

Enterprise Integration has steadily evolved from the ninteen-seventies with increasing needs of integrating the information and material flow throughout the enterprise. Separate achievements have been accomplished in the area of manufacturing both in design and production (NC and CAD/CAM systems, CIM systems, Manufacturing Cells, Material Requirements Planning and Production Scheduling Systems), and in the area of business support (Accounting, Financial Planning, Human Resource Management, Decision Support Systems, etc).


High Level Architecture, Technical Specifications

The High Level Architecture (HLA) is a general purpose architecture for simulation reuse and interoperability. The HLA was developed under the leadership of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) to support reuse and interoperability across the large numbers of different types of simulations developed and maintained by the DoD. The HLA Baseline Definition was completed on August 21, 1996. It was approved by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology (USD(A&T)) as the standard technical architecture for all DoD simulations on September 10, 1996. The HLA was adopted as the Facility for Distributed Simulation Systems 1.0 by the Object Management Group (OMG) in November 1998. The HLA was approved as an open standard through the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) - IEEE Standard 1516 - in September 2000. The HLA MOA was signed and approved in Nov. 2000.

Defense Modelling & Simulation Office

Download HLA Evaluation NASA (160Kb)

Download HLA Overview document (50Kb)

Interesting Defense Links
Extended Enterprise Architecture Framework / E2AF & Extended Enterprise Architecture Maturity Model / E2AMM are Service Marks (SM) registered by IFEAD