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Defense follows the EA leader
For once, the USA Defense Department
has been playing catch-up with the
rest of government.
Over the past year, USA Defense
created a new IT architecture that
mirrors the USA Federal Enterprise
Architecture, said Roy Mabry, a
senior architect in the department’s
“Our reference models are
not radically different from the
Office of Management and Budget’s
reference models,” Mabry said
at a recent conference on enterprise
architecture in Washington sponsored
by the Digital Government Institute
of Bethesda, Md. “We mapped
our mission areas to OMB’s
DOD previously had gone its own
way on EA, with its Command, Control,
Communications, Computers, Intelligence,
Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Core Architecture. But DOD dumped
that data model last year and developed
one that aligns with the rest of
“To have true information
sharing and security, we have to
be planning across all of government,
which means normalizing justifications
across civilian, Defense and intelligence,”
said Norman Lorentz, former OMB
chief technology officer, who helped
DOD begin its shift to a more common
model. “By using the FEA methodology,
other agencies in theory could use
DOD’s work. All the components
should be plug-and-play.”
Lorentz, now managing director
for Federal Solutions Group of Vienna,
Va., added that DOD decided to mesh
its EA with the federal model because
OMB was making funding decisions
based on how well agencies’
systems matched up against the FEA.
Mabry said DOD developed four major
mission areas: business, warfighter,
intelligence and enterprise information.
The department’s Global Information
Grid Architecture encompasses all
the mission areas and the Technical,
Service Component, Business, Data
and Performance reference models
break down the mission areas into
functions and subfunctions.
Mabry said Defense will finish
the second versions of the reference
models this spring.
“The reference models can
help transform DOD because each
simplifies the complexities of our
missions,” he said. “We
took the FEA methodology as a high-level
taxonomy and its definitions to
organize the DOD mission areas.”
Mabry added that when his team
was developing each reference model,
architects found the reference models
needed to be extended because they
did not offer specific enough information
about some of DOD’s mission
Now that Version 1.0 of the architecture
is in place, Mabry said the CIO’s
office must make the case to program
chiefs that they should be more
involved in planning and deploying
November 2004, USA Fed up with the lack
of progress USA Defense has made on modernizing
its business systems, US-Congress is threatening
fines of $5,000 and jail time for the departments
comptroller if systems do not comply with
Congress is enforcing its mandate that
the US Defense Department develop systems
compatible with the DOD Business Enterprise
Architecturewith the threat of jail
time and hefty fines for the departments
The language is tied to Title 31 of the
Antideficiency Act, which makes it illegal
for government agencies to use funds for
projects outside authorized purposes.
I think the legislation is a step
in the right direction in terms of governance,
accountability and helping to bring together
the integration of thousands of business
systems in the department, said Gregory
Kutz, director of financial management and
assurance for the Government Accountability
Kutz said when he did his review of the
departments Business Management Modernization
Program in the summer, he found dozens of
systems across the Army, Air Force and Navytotaling
$863 million in obligationsthat were
in clear violation of the act.
Marilyn Fleming, chief architect for Defenses
Business Management Modernization Program,
said DOD is listening.
More About This Story
Warfare requires more Collaboration
USA Joint Forces Command has built a new command
and control facility for civilian and military
agencies and NATO countries that its chief
promises will be a vibrant intellectual
new Joint Systems Integration Command in Suffolk,
Va. USA, will incorporate a Joint National
Training Capability and begin initial operations
this month, said Adm. Edmund P. Giambastiani
Jr., head of the USA Joint Forces Command.
He spoke in late September at the Commonwealth
of Virginia IT Symposium in Norfolk.
began on the 86,000-square-foot facility in
March. Its mission is rapid insertion of new
joint technologies for command, control, communications,
computers, intelligence, surveillance and
going to demonstrate next-generation, multiagency
and multinational collaboration and interoperable
command and control across the full spectrum,
Giambastiani said. We dont care
where the innovation comes from. There is
great value in having a wide net of partners.
end result, he said, will be to mass
the [military] effects when and where we choose,
not just to mass the equipment and forces.
joint training program held trials three times
this year on the same training range, he said.
It will eventually replace separate training
exercises held by the Navys Top Gun
pilot school, the Air Forces Air Warrior
program and the Armys National Training
military teams of the future will be trained
to use the same terminals, or kill boxes,
community looks to Enterprise Architecture
to build up information sharing
USA intelligence communitythe collection
of federal agencies that gather, analyze
and disseminate intelligenceneeds
to adopt an enterprise architecture to
break down the barriers that have long
prevented its members from sharing information.
community comprises three distinct elements:
agencies within the Defense Department,
such as the Defense Intelligence Agency;
those that are part of larger departments,
such as State and Energy; and one standalone
agency, the CIA.
have to start with almost a federal view
of this, and even thats not quite
big enough, Wade said in an interview,
because even organizations outside the
community, such as the Homeland Security
Department and state and local law enforcement
agencies, rely on the intelligence.
intelligence community is still developing
the architecture. The blueprint will be
used to define and support all the purposes
and missions for which the community needs
to share information, including military
intelligence. The Defense Department is
working on its own plan, know as the ISR
The Department of Defense's (DoD) Business Enterprise
Architecture is a high-level blueprint to guide
the DoD's transformation. The Business Enterprise
Architecture describes the structural composition
of DoD business operations in ways that transcend
organizational boundaries - it demonstrates and
facilitates the derivative nature of the design
and development of business capabilities by linking
business needs to business capabilities and by tracing
business strategies to systems solutions.
We are pleased to announce the delivery of the DoD-wide
Business Enterprise Architecture (BEA) version 2.2.1,
which is pending government approval. The Standard
Financial Information Structure (SFIS) is introduced
in version 2.2.1. This builds upon version 2.2,
which is highlighted by the Enterprise Business
Process Model (EBPM).
Architecture Reference Models:
A Shared Vision for Service-Oriented Architectures
Tim Bass, Silk Road; firstname.lastname@example.org and Roy Mabry,
DoD OCIO ASD/NII; email@example.com
business- and mission-driven objectives of service-oriented
architectures depend on the dynamic interaction
of collaborative integrated operations in a federated
operational environment. The theme of this paper
is that integrated operations can and should be
considered service-oriented nodes in a dynamic information
environment. In the Department of Defense, this
dynamic information environment has often been referred
to as the global information grid or
simply the grid. We describe enterprise
architecture reference models as a dynamic abstract
reference environment for net-centric collaboration
between the service-oriented nodes on the
grid. The complex, dynamic interaction of
service-oriented nodes in the net-centric environment
creates an opportunity to view enterprise architecture
as a taxonomy of well-defined systems architectures
governed by a set of enterprise architecture reference
this paper here (PDF 553 Kb)
to test Business Modernization Architecture
Defense Department later this month will release
two requests for proposals for pilot programs using
its Business Management Modernization Program architecture.
will award contracts for a new accounting system
based on the requirements identified last April
by Defense employees and contractor IBM Corp. U.S.
Transportation Command, Air Force Mobility will
conduct one test and the Army Installation Management
Agency will run the other one during fiscal 2005,
said JoAnn Boutelle, DODs deputy chief finance
the services are cooperating to work on the implementation
of these new processes so we will end up with a
common set of processes, Boutelle said at
the annual conference sponsored by the Joint Financial
Management Improvement Program in Washington. All
the bases will eventually run the same system with
some tweaking needed.
USA Defense Department will start certifying enterprise
architecture software that is compatible with the
agencys own architecture terminology.
of the vendors products can be used with the
Department of Defense Architecture Repository System,
which the military services can use for sharing
and integrating their architectures.
serving as a central repository, DARS was created
to counter the growing interoperability of enterprise
architecture development software, even though most
products use the open Extensible Markup Language,
with the Defense Architecture Framework, DARS uses
Version 2.0 of DODs Core Architecture Data
Model terminology for defining organizational components.
certification will ensure that the companys
software can read CADM-based XML files and that
it can convert and export user-generated files into
the CADM terminology.
overall objective is for the people to interchange
data without problems, said Bill Wright, chief
executive officer for Computas Inc., of Sammamish,
Wash. If someone in the Navy needs to exchange
data with the Air Force or Army, they can access
the data and pull it right into the software they
are using without writing a code or doing a lot
of analysis of how that data maps.
generate vendor interest, the office undertook a
proof of concept last fall with four companies to
demonstrate that CADM-based data could be moved
among different software programs.
second phase of this work, now underway, involves
vendors writing their own DARS-compatible plug-ins.
The teams currently working through the second phase
of a prototype of DARS include Computas, IBM Corp.,
IDS Scheer AG of Germany, Popkin Software and Systems
Inc. of New York, Proforma Corp., of Southfield,
Mich., and Schafer Corp. of Arlington, Va.
that build compatible products will be certified
after the prototype is finished in June.
need for better interoperability and information
flow across DoD in support of the joint Warfighter
has been widely recognized. Joint Vision 2010 provided
the baseline for this vision, anticipating future
warfighting that embodied the improved intelligence
and command and control available in the information
age. It stressed technological innovation as the
means to enable DoD systems to interact with each
other, exchanging vital information across platforms
and across systems within a platform during joint
operations. Joint Vision 2020 goes beyond technological
innovation, and points toward innovation in all
aspects of force, and it addresses the need for
interoperability in joint, multinational, and interagency
(AT&L) memo, subject: NATO Standards for Use
in the Acquisition of Munitions, provides direction
in the use of selected NATO Standardization Agreements
(STANAGs) and Allied Ordnance Publications (AOPs)
in furthering the DoD goal of interoperability with
our NATO allies.
At left is a discussion paper on interoperability
as supported by the Defense Standardization Program
(also available as a PowerPoint briefing, with notes.
A number of joint initiatives are underway within
DoD that attempt to address these concerns. Some
of the the decisions reached by these joint bodies,
as described in different documents, have a definite
impact on Defense standardization. Several of the
key efforts are outlined below
acronym C4ISR stands for Command,
and Reconnaissance (ISR).
The C4ISR Architecture Framework Version 2.0 is a
framework giving comprehensive architectural guidance
for all of these related Defense and DoD domains,
in order to ensure interoperable and cost effective
Framework is under revision to generalize it to apply
to all functional areas of the Department of Defense.
It is already being used in government areas beyond
the Defense sector.
impetus for the Framework was the realization within
the US Department of Defense that DoD organizations
across the world were developing architectures representing
specific contributions and relationships with respect
to overall DoD operations, but that significant differences
in content and formats were inhibiting the ability
to rationalize or compare different architecture descriptions.
In turn, disparate and unrelatable architecture products
were leading to non-integrated, non-interoperable,
and non-cost effective capabilities in the field.
C4ISR Architecture Framework is intended to ensure
that the architecture descriptions developed by the
various Commands, Services, and Agencies within DoD
are interrelatable between and among each organizationís
operational, systems, and technical architecture views,
and are comparable and integratable across Joint and
multi-national organizational boundaries.
particular, the Framework:
that architectures are integratable across the Defense
linkages or threads that tie together the operational,
systems, and technical views of an architecture
the basis for an audit trail that relates current
and postulated systems to measures of effectiveness
for mission operations
C4ISR Version 2 Architecture Framework (3459Kb)
NATO countries developed simular C3I or C4ISR frameworks
for their Enterprise Architecture activities.
Architecture Tools for Delivering Combat and Business
Architecture Framework, Methods & Tools Comparison
C4ISR AF Products are robust in terms of capturing
the architecture, but are problematic when they need
to be rigorously modeled on the path to producing
a system that is compliant with that architecture.
The recommended documentation of the artifacts from
this architecture is not consistent across all the
products from a system or software "methodology representation"
C4ISR Tools & Methods Comparison Presentation
Architectures Working Group-Digital Library
order to achieve the dominant battlespace awareness
called for in Joint Vision 2010, todays fragmented
Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence
Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) development
processes must become more focused, efficient, and
effective. The objective must be a joint C4ISR capability
that is integrated, interoperable, efficient, and
meets todays demanding mission needs.
WIN-T program enters Phase 2
US Army has begun the development and demonstration
phase of its Warfighter Information Network-Tactical
Wynne, acting undersecretary of Defense for acquisition,
technology and logistics, has given the Army approval
to proceed beyond the concept phase of WIN-T.
US Army recently awarded $68 million to General
Dynamics Corp. and $63 million to Lockheed Martin
Corp. for Phase 2 work.
also gave the program the Defense Departmentís top
acquisition designation, which means that because
the programís total procurement is more than $10
billion, DOD ďwill maintain a higher level of visibility
into WIN-T, which is an essential element of the
departmentís transformation strategy,Ē Wynne said.
decision came the day after the Defense Acquisition
Board met to review the project, said Donald L.
Keller, WIN-T project director. The Army Communications-Electronics
Command in Fort Monmouth, N.J., oversees the project.
the WIN-T program, the Army plans to build a high-speed,
high-capacity network for wired and wireless voice,
data, video and imagery communications for soldiers
on the battlefield.
Army had to demonstrate that the requirements are
sound, that a system and operational architecture
have been developed and that the program is affordable,Ē
Keller said. Thatís what consumed much of the first
phase, he saidódeveloping the system architecture,
performing technology assessments and running cost
this second phase, the service will spend 27 months
working with Lockheed Martinís mission systems group
and General Dynamicsí command, control, computers
and communications systems division.
contractors will work with the Army to design the
system, run models and simulations of the communications
network, and build equipment prototypes, Keller
2006, the Army will pick one of the two vendors
to begin rolling out an operational version of WIN-T.
network will replace the Tri-service Tactical Communications
system, which is based on military technology from
the 1970s. Signal battalions are required to use
the system for most communications functions.
new system will use commercial products and standards
so that new technology can be incorporated as soon
as it becomes available. The network will be part
of the userís platform and not dependent on the
Signal Corps to provide the communications link.
will require interfaces with other Defense combat
systems as well as the Armyís Future Combat Systems,
Joint Tactical Radio System and ultimately the equipment
for the Objective Force Warrior, the Armyís high-tech
vision for 21st-century combat forces.
Inspector General criticizes Business Enterprise
US Defense Department Inspector Generalís office
last week issued a report criticizing DODís Business
Enterprise Architecture and calling for the department
to address the issues quickly.
has spent $100 million with lead contractor IBM
Corp. to develop the business enterprise architecture,
but it has not defined what a business management
IT system is or established a systems inventory
that is synchronized with the modernization effort,
a deputy assistant IG found in the July 10 report.
DOD has not established procedures for enterprise
architecture workers to develop and maintain a complete
list of business systems, according to David K.
Steensma, deputy IG for auditing.
has broken its financial framework into seven business
areas: logistics, acquisition, accounting and financial
management, program and budget, personnel and readiness,
technology infrastructure and real property, and
environmental liabilities. DOD has appointed financial
managers to oversee each of the business areas.
ďDOD does not have a single-source repository to
collect its business information, reduce the burden
of multiple and costly data calls, and inform its
transforming initiatives,Ē according to the report.
this report 'Systems Inventory to Support the Business
Enterprise Architecture (D-2003-117) (333Kb PDF)
of Defense, Business Enterprise Architecture
The Defense Departmentís Financial Management Modernization
Program office, became the Business Management Modernization
Program office. And DODís financial management architecture
is now the business enterprise architecture.
Last month, DOD unveiled a plan to whittle its more
than 2,200 financial systems for an enterprise architecture
being developed by IBM Corp. The architecture identifies
the business rules as well as the technology needed
for a departmentwide financial infrastructure.
Management Enterprise Architecture
Department of Defense will be managed in an efficient,
business-like manner, in which accurate, reliable,
and timely financial information, affirmed by clean
audit opinions, is available on a routine basis to
support informed decision-making at all levels throughout
In July 2001, Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld
established the Financial Management Modernization
Program (FMMP), the most comprehensive and ambitious
DoD-wide reform initiative of its kind. Just as the
Department is transforming our nation's military forces,
so is it also modernizing the business and financial
processes and systems to deliver reliable and accurate
information for timely decision-making. In this way,
the Department will not only benefit from greater
efficiency, but also apply the resources saved directly
to our war fighting capability.
scope of FMMP is broad and deep, encompassing the
Department's business activities and infrastructure.
The Departmentís business activities include financial
and non-financial operations and systems. Non-financial
business operations and systems include those that
support the acquisition, medical, transportation,
property, inventory, supply, and personnel communities,
as well as other communities. The first step is to
design a Financial Management Enterprise Architecture
(FMEA) that will modernize and integrate both processes
and systems, which are now isolated from one another.
The FMEA will be the blueprint to transform the Department's
business operations and will leverage systems and
technologies to enable this comprehensive change.
Such fundamental and sweeping change is never easy,
yet reform is essential to ensure Defense operations
well into the 21st Century.
A successful FMMP will mean responsible and effective
stewardship of the resources entrusted to usóresources
essential for protecting American freedom. A comprehensive
approach, senior management commitment, and inter-Departmental
cooperation will help guarantee that momentum for
this reform initiative is sustained over the long
Financial Management Enterprise Architecture
View FMEA's Vision, Scope and Approach
Defense Wide Enterprise Architecture Presentation
Presentation E-Government & Enterprise Architecture
Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration
Integration has steadily evolved from the ninteen-seventies
with increasing needs of integrating the information
and material flow throughout the enterprise. Separate
achievements have been accomplished in the area
of manufacturing both in design and production (NC
and CAD/CAM systems, CIM systems, Manufacturing
Cells, Material Requirements Planning and Production
Scheduling Systems), and in the area of business
support (Accounting, Financial Planning, Human Resource
Management, Decision Support Systems, etc).